Plum grows in cold-temperate climatic regions. Plums remain on the market for four or five months due to the possibilities provided by different ecological regions.
If maturation conditions are taken into consideration, plums will be presented to the market for a long period like 15 April-30 September. The plums of P. ceresifera are removed from April 15. These are followed by Japanese plums of P. salicina. P. domestica group plums (European plums) mature after 20 July.
World plum production was 11,528,337 tons in 2013. In our country, plum production is 305,393 tons in 2013.
Plum blossoms occur in the shoots of that year or in the lateral (lateral) buds on the elderly spurs. The time of its formation is at the earliest, with the end of the summer, July 5th and latest September. It does not bust out.
Plums may be morphological infertile.
Plums have different climate desires. Among the available species, P. cerasifera is the best able to cope with various climatic conditions. European plums (P. domestica) are relatively cold winter temperate climate. Japanese plums (P. salinica) give good results in cold areas.
There are certain aspects which should be taken into account before the trees are established, e.g. slope, plant spacing/plant density, orchard design, planting date and planting depth. Plant density depends on the properties of the selected rootstock and the training system which will be used. Plum trees are normally planted 1,5 to 2,0 m apart within the planting row and at a spacing of 4 to 5 m between the planting rows. A wider plant spacing should be used when the soil is ridged (2,0 x 4,5 m).
Annual rainfall of 750 mm in the last plums can be grown without irrigation. Rainfall is mandatory watering places falls below this figure. Plums they fringes as they are rooted in their water requirements and shallow roots are more developed than their deep-rooted fruit trees. P. cerasifera types drought between existing species are based on the most. From the second half of May, in the Aegean region of a plum garden watered during the period 8-12 days until the autumn rains. Watering is carried out in various ways. Furrow irrigation, pots, pans or furrow-pot method, used in combination with one of the ways. Irrigation systems of land property, selected according to their wealth of water resources. Drip irrigation and sprinkler systems came into today's mini-applications.
There are certain factors that could influence the fertilization of plums, such as soil type, soil and plant reserves, the age, size, vigour and yield of the trees as well as the fertilization used in the past. Nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium tend to leach easily from sandy soils. Newly planted trees must be fertilised in the first year after new leaf formation in spring. Place the fertiliser at and slightly beyond the canopy edge of the tree but never against the tree. Repeat in the second year.
Thinning is done by hand or chemicals. Plum fruit is small thinning hands are costly.
Best collection maturity; full size of the fruit of the tree, which they derive their color, and the flesh is sweeter when they are full. For distant markets, harvesting should be done earlier.
Plum harvest time, upper and ground fruit firmness change in color, looking at the amount of water-soluble dry substance or from full bloom to harvest is determined by looking at the time.
Drying fruit is a plum flew the amount of water on extremely mature trees are harvested after wrinkled. Some of wrinkled plum tree falls to the bottom of. These are collected from the ground. In the remaining fruit on the tree are harvested by hand or machine.
Plums are stored in optimal C to 0 C or -0.5. This temperature for 3-4 weeks in the European plums, Japanese plums, also be able to store 7-8 weeks. Low temperature inside obscuration Plum controlled atmosphere conditions can be stored at 4-8 C for the previously mentioned period.
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