Trabzon Persimmon Growing

  1. Introduction

The persimmon is the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros is in the family Ebenaceae, and other members of the genus are grown for ebony timber.

Trabzon persimmon is rich in ascorbic acid and vitamin A. The ascorbic acid concentration rate increases from shell to the inside of the fruit.

Trabzon persimmon is harsh due to the phenolic compounds.

The high levels of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in the fruit provide antioxidant properties to this fruit. It grows Mediterranean region in Turkey.

  1. Vegetal Features

The trees of Trabzon persimmons are developed as vertical, semi-steep or flat. The branches develop moderate strong or very strong.

In the second and third years of planting, large amounts of glabrous branches are seen. Gluttonous branches grow strong and steep. From the third year onwards, the gluttonous branches are reduced.

The buds in the resting cycle are distinctive and dark brown. Some varieties (Fuyu) are frequently branched, while some varieties (Hachiya) are branched infrequently.

Trabzon persimmon trees pave their leaves in winter. Especially until the ripe fruit grows, it creates a pleasant appearance with this state.

Persimmons can be classified into two general categories: those that bear astringent fruit until they are soft ripe and those that bear non-astringent fruits. Within each of these categories, there are cultivars whose fruits are influenced by pollination (pollination variant) and cultivars whose fruits are unaffected by pollination (pollination constant). An astringent cultivar must be jelly soft before it is fit to eat, and such cultivars are best adapted to cooler regions where persimmons can be grown. The flesh color of pollination-constant astringent cultivars is not influenced by pollination. Pollination-variant astringent cultivars have dark flesh around the seeds when pollinated. A nonastringent persimmon can be eaten when it is crisp as an apple. These cultivars need hot summers, and the fruit might retain some astringency when grown in cooler regions. Pollination-constant nonastringent (PCNA) persimmons are always edible when still firm; pollination-variant nonastringent (PVNA) fruit are edible when firm only if they have been pollinated.

Astringent persimmons contain very high levels of soluble tannins and are unpalatable if eaten before completely softened. However, the sweet, delicate flavor of fully ripened persimmons of varieties that are astringent when unripe is particularly relished.

Some varieties have no change in the color of fruit flesh when they are pollinated. The flesh of these varieties is always light (orange) color. In this case, a new classification was made considering the fruit flesh color effect of pollination. This classification is still used today.

Two types;

Chatoyant

Non-chatoyant

When the first group fruits pollinated, they have stones and their fruit flesh is orange in color. The second group fruits are not pollinated, hence, they are orange in color and astringent in taste.

Most of the varieties of Trabzon persimmons are required to be pollinated. In order to get enough products from these varieties, pollinators must be used.

Male flowers should be used as pollinators. Insects provide pollination. Many types of pollinators have not good fruit qualities and have no market value. Although persimmons can produce fruit parthenocarpically (without pollination). Asian persimmons are less likely to drop fruit and tend to produce larger and more fruit when pollinated. 'Galley' and 'Gosho' are good Asian male pollinator varieties. If you're growing American varieties, it's also best to have a male pollinator variety. 'Meader' is one of the few American varieties that is known to be self-fruitful, but even its fruits will do better if planted with a male pollinator such as American Male. Asian varieties will not pollinate American varieties, and vice versa.

The shape of the fruit varies by cultivar from spherical to acorn to flattened or squarish. The color of the fruit varies from light yellow-orange to dark orange-red. The size can be as little as a few ounces to more than a pound.

  1. General Requirements

They grow swiftly, and are resilient to the stresses of unpredictable climates. Persimmons can tolerate and adapt to a wide range of climates. Persimmons grown in cooler areas should have full sun with protection from cooling breezes.

The fruits need 140-160 days to mature. Persimmons can withstand a wide range of conditions as long as the soil is not overly salty, but does best in deep, well-drained loam. The tree has a strong taproot which may mean digging a deeper hole than usual when planting.

Trabzon persimmon trees generally do not suffer damage from the wind . The fruit is damaged by leaves and branches, which causes the quality to fall in windy areas. Severe winds can cause fruit-laden branches to break. To prevent this situation, the branches should be supported with prop.

Hardy persimmon trees tolerate various soil conditions, with the exception of extremely salty soils. However, persimmon should be planted in a fertile, loamy soil helps promote optimal plant growth and fruit production. These trees prefer a neutral soil, with a pH of 6.5 to 7.5. Plant the trees in soil with good drainage to reduce the risk of root rot, a potentially fatal condition that often affects persimmon trees.

  1. Fertilization

The Trabzon persimmon tree is fertilized by steel and budding method. However, since steels are very difficult to root, budding methods are generally preferred.

  1. Garden Facilities

The garden preparation should be started in summer. In order to avoid nutritional problems, soil analysis should be done and necessary fertilizers should be given according to the analysis results. Soil should be drained where there is a problem of excess rainfall and groundwater.

If the soil is not rich in organic matter, 3-4 tones of greenhouse fertilizer should be given to the reservoir or fertilized with green manure. A deep version should be done in the autumn and the garden should be leveled if it is uneven. Terracing is required if the garden is very skew.

These trees have strong taproots and long root systems. This means that a deeper hole should be dug.

Sap should be given immediately after planting. The seedlings should be tied with the herders so that the newly planted seedlings are not bent with the effect of precipitation and winds.

Things to watch out for when choosing a garden place: Grow in sub-tropical area. But it can also grow in the hot-temperate climate. Since the branches are very crispy, places with strong winds should not be preferred. If necessary, wind turbines are created with cypress. The soil is medium heavy, rich in organic matter, pH = 6,5-7, drainage should be good, deep. If the ground water is high, drainage ditches are opened.

Points to note in selection of varieties: The selected varieties should be non-brittle, seedless, hard-flesh, suitable for road and conservation, orange-red color. The use of early, middle and late season varieties in terms of development extends the market period.

  1. CULTURAL OPERATIONS

6.1. Irrigation

Persimmon trees will withstand short periods of drought, but the fruit will be larger and of higher quality with regular watering. Extreme drought will cause the leaves and fruit to drop prematurely. Any fruit left on the tree will probably sunburn. Some 36 to 48 inches of water are needed annually, applied gradually in spring and tapering off in the fall. Hot inland areas may require 2 or 3 applications weekly, while coastal areas may need watering only once every 6 weeks, depending on the soil. If a drip system is used, the emitters should be moved away from the trunk as the tree matures.

6.2. Fertilization

The amount of fertilizer to be given to Trabzon persimmon should be determined according to the results of leaf and soil analysis. A well-burnt farm grape should be given every 3 years with an account of 3-4 tons in autumn and be mixed with the soil to release. Most trees do well with a minimum of fertilizing. Excess nitrogen can cause fruit drop. If mature leaves are not deep green and shoot growth is less than a foot per year, apply a balanced fertilizer such as a 10-10-10 at a rate of l pound per inch of trunk diameter at ground level. Spread the fertilizer evenly under the canopy in late winter or early spring.

6.3. Pruning

In the first three years after planting, the figure trimming is done. Different crowning (modified leader) system can be applied to the crowning of the plant. In the different peak system, it is essential to develop 3-5 main branches distributed on the body.  Prune persimmon trees to develop a strong framework of main branches while the tree is young. Otherwise the fruit, which is borne at the tips of the branches, may be too heavy and cause breakage. A regular program of removal of some new growth and heading others each year will improve structure and reduce alternate bearing. An open vase system is probably best. Even though the trees grow well on their own, persimmons can be pruned heavily as a hedge, as a screen, or to control size. They even make a nice espalier. Cut young trees back to 1/2 high (or about 3 feet) at the time of planting.

6.4. Soil Cultivation

In the Trabzon horticultural garden, tillage can be made uncovered or covered. In uncovered operation, soil is applied and the soil is kept on top. With this type of tillage, weeds can be destroyed and rainwater or irrigation can break down the slippery layer so that the water can be easily processed into the soil and the soil can be removed.

6.5. Fruit Set and Thinning

In some varieties periodicity (abundant one year, yielding less than one year) can be seen. In this case, the flowers can be diluted in the year of excessive yield.

If high-quality fruit is desired for export, a fruit should be left in each fruit branch and the leaves around the fruit should be torn off so as not to damage the fruit.

In some varieties, excessive fruit is found. The reasons for fruit-filling are:

Excessive fruitiness,

The lack of pollinator or fertilization,

Excessive irrigation or dehydration,

Excessive nitrogen fertilization and the resulting unbalanced vegetative development,

Excessive potassium and manganese deficiency,

Influence of flour pest.

  1. HARVEST AND STORAGE

It is important that the fruits of Trabzon horticulture are available at appropriate times. Fruits should be picked up when they get their full size and when the green color of the fruit crust disappears and the color of the fruit is orange or dark orange.

Harvest astringent varieties when they are hard but fully colored. They will soften on the tree and improve in quality, but you will probably lose many fruit to the birds. Astringent persimmons will ripen off the tree if stored at room temperature. Nonastringent persimmons are ready to harvest when they are fully colored, but for best flavor, allow them to soften slightly after harvest. Both kinds of persimmons should be cut from the tree with hand-held pruning shears, leaving the calyx intact Unless the fruit is to be used for drying whole, the stems should be cut as close to the fruit as possible. Even though the fruit is relatively hard when harvested, it will bruise easily, so handle with care.

Mature, hard astringent persimmons can be stored in the refrigerator for at least a month. They can also be frozen for 6 to 8 months. Nonastringent persimmons can be stored for a short period at room temperature. They will soften if kept with other fruit in the refrigerator. Persimmons also make an excellent dried fruit. They can either be peeled and dried whole or cut into slices (peeled or unpeeled) and dried that way. When firm astringent persimmons are peeled and dried whole they lose all their astringency and develop a sweet, datelike consistency.

Persimmons are found in most supermarkets during the season, but there is not a large demand outside ethnic markets. It would appear that there is a potential as a major crop if and when the market is developed.

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