Pomegranate Growing

  1. INTRODUCTION

Pomegranate is a temperate climatic plant with a very strong root system. Pomegranate is rich in vitamin C, iron and potassium.

The pomegranate plant has a very wide adaptation ability. In general, although it is a tropical and subtropical climate plant, it can withstand temperatures as low as -10 ° C. Pomegranate is an important fruit species in Turkey's fruit trade and foreign trade. It is a kind of fruit that can be grown in various climate and soil conditions, easy to maintain, find good price in domestic and foreign markets, stay in trees for a long time and be kept in store.

Some of our region is located in the motherland of the pomegranate. In 2013, pomegranate production in our country was 383,085 tons, of which 149,607 tons were exported. Our country is one of the biggest pomegranate producers in the world.

  1. CLIMATE AND SOIL Requirements

2.1 Climate

Pomegranate is native to warm, dry and long summer season, and rainy winter. For this reason, it has wide adaptation ability.

High temperature is needed for blooming. Commercial fruits cannot bloom when the temperature is insufficient.

The pomegranate can last up to -10 ° C in temperate climatic zones and is not damaged by spring frosts because they are blooming late. However, late maturing varieties can be affected by early frost.

In pomegranate cultivation, an average annual rainfall of 500 mm is sufficient, and it is demanded that these rains fall in the spring. Summer rains disrupt the quality of the fruit; the rains that are near to the period are cracking the fruit crust. During the fruit formation period, dry weather conditions increase the market value by providing the highest quality fruit.

2.2. Soil

Pomegranate is not very selective in terms of soil. Pomegranate cultivation can be done in various soil types such as siliceous, pebbly, sandy, limy, clayey and heavy clay. It has moderate resistance to saltiness. Unlike some fruits, it is found to be based on excessive soil moisture. The most favorable development in pomegranate is seen in deep, permeable, moist and cool soils against dry and hot weather conditions.

  1. Growing Technique

3.1 Variety

In pomegranate cultivation, variety selection is very important.

The varieties are adapted to the region, the climate of the area, the diseases resistant; the good the yields, the fruits should be suitable for the taste and taste of people and resistant to transportation.

In the selection of varieties, it should be decided to cultivate varieties of table edifices according to commercial purpose.

Domestically popular pomegranate varieties are light sweet or sweet seedless and large fruit ones. For export to Europe, especially red and bitter varieties should be chosen. For export to Arab countries, sweet pomegranates should be preferred. In addition, to obtain pomegranate juice or pomegranate syrup and sour pomegranate is chosen again.

3.2 Gardening Facility

Determination of the garden site should be done after the soil analyses. In the autumn, planting pits are opened at 40-60 cm depth and diameter.

Planting intervals vary between 2 m and 6 m. However, the most commonly used planting spacing in closed pomegranate gardens is 2.5 m x 4 m or 3 m x 4 m. The ranks are usually in the north-south direction. Pomegranate garden can be planted directly with steel or rooted seedlings. However, it is more appropriate to plant the pomegranate steels in a nursery parcel and plant them in the garden after a year's maintenance, as the planting of the steel directly into the garden will lead to various maintenance difficulties and yield losses.

Pomegranate seedlings can be planted during the winter months and early in the spring, starting from the fall of the leaves. Autumn planting is more useful in areas where the winters are not too cold. The hill is removed from 50-60 cm from the shoot. If the shoot is not so big, if it is weak, it will be cut off 2-3 eyes immediately after the planting and strong shoot formation will be provided for next year. Then, the mixture of the soil-fertilizer mixture is poured into the soil until the steel part of the plant is completely covered with soil. The seedlings are placed here and the same soil fertilizer mixture is filled again. The soil in the seedlings is pressed well by foot. Lastly, sap should be done by watering, even if the soil is wet and the weather is rainy.

3.3 Fertilization

According to the researchers, organic fertilizers have a very important effect on development, yield and quality. The farm grape to be given to the pomegranate should be well burned and the deposit should be given in 2-3 tones for covering all the garden in the autumn and winter months and be mixed with the anchor and the soil. Green fertilization for pomegranate also gives beneficial results.

Nitrogen is very important for pomegranate. The use of nitrogenous fertilizers is essential for growth and fruit growth. In the first years, giving 50-100 gr of pure nitrogen (ammonium sulphate) per tree (250-500 gr) gives beneficial results.

After complete dissolution, this amount should be subtracted as (200 - 300 g) (ammonium sulphate) per tree (1 - 1.5 kg).

Nitrogenous fertilizers are given twice in the early spring and summer months. 2/3 of the above amount should be given in March, and 1/3 in June-July. After fertilizing, the tree should be immediately watered. If it is not watered, it should be mixed with anchor and soil.

Phosphorous fertilizers are related to the flowering of the pomegranate, the development of the fruit and root development. The requirement of phosphorus of pomegranate was determined as 100-200 gr pure phosphorus (trible superphosphate) at the full efficiency age (250-500 gr). Phosphorous fertilizers in the winter months branches reached 20-30 cm in the branches reached by the branches around the tree is closed on the 4-6 tablets are opened.

As is the case with organic fertilizers, the physical and chemical structure of the soil must be well observed in the application of commercial fertilizers, and fertilizer application after soil and leaf analysis is the ideal situation.

3.4 Irrigation

Pomegranate generally requires moist and cool soil conditions. For this reason, irrigation is necessary in every period when rainfall is not enough. It is suitable to make the watering more or less frequently. According to the soil structure of the garden, a certain irrigation interval (7-10 days) should be determined and watering should be done at these intervals, but the frequency and amount of irrigation can be increased in summer.In the last maturation period of the fruit, we should see the cracking of the shell which is a big problem in the pomegranate otherwise we should stop the watering 10-15 days ago. Where possible, drip irrigation, under irrigation, leaking irrigation systems from modern irrigation systems should be applied. The initial investment costs of these systems are high. It provides great benefits such as economically low water usage without labor for a long time.

3.5 Maintenance

3.5.1 Soil Cultivation

The young pomegranates are first edited in two ways with deep-drawing tools. In the following years, it can be released with garden tractors that have narrow business width and with tools for treating soil.

3.5.2 Pruning

Shape Pruning: In the first 2-3 years, the trees are pruned sliced.

Yield Pruning: The pomegranates generally give fruit from the 2nd and 3rd years. After bearing, the tree should not be pruned.

Growth Pruning: The pomegranate drops from an average of 20 to 30 years depending on various conditions. Older bodies are cut from the bottom to encourage the formation of new shoots. The trees are rejuvenated by creating new bodies in the same way as these exiles.

3.6 Harvest, Packaging and Storage

3.6.1 Harvesting

The pomegranate harvest varies, depending on the variety and region, but usually begins in late August until mid-November. The pomegranate grows due to the long blooming period at different times. Therefore, the pomegranate harvest must be done 2-3 times. The harvest must be finished before early autumn frosts and rains and should be done with scissors so as to remain on the fruit at a length of 1-2 mm. Especially during the harvest increasing the qualities because it reduces the fruit foliage and prevents the fruit decay from damages.

3.6.2 Packaging

Packing of pomegranates is very important in terms of marketing. The selection, sorting and packaging of the fruit are especially important for export in terms of the market. It is necessary to pay attention that the selection and the length of the pomegranate are more suitable to be done by hand and the fruits are not packed together.

3.6.3 Storage

Due to the special structure of the fruit peel, the pomegranate can be stored for 4-6 months under various conditions.

Since the pomegranate is very suitable for storing and it is 2-3 times more expensive in winter, it is a very profitable investment.

The success that can be achieved with the safest and least loss in the storage of pomegranates is modern cold storage despite additional costs. Temperatures and relative humidity can be maintained in these adjustable reservoirs at 1-2oC with 85-90% relative humidity.

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