Pear is cultivated almost everywhere in the world where. However, compared to apples, pears are less sensitive to warmth and drought and therefore they can grow in the warm climate regions such as Mediterranean. China, the US, and Italy are the world’s leading producers of pears. According to the latest statistics; while Turkey ranks 4th in the world in terms of land, it has not reached this success with production. Turkey is in the 6th place with 461,826 tons in production. In our country, pear production has not developed as fast as apple production, which has similar cultivation, conservation and evaluation characteristics. The growing feature of pear is beneficial for preserving the rich variety of seeds. However, due to inadequate maintenance, it leads to the lack of adequate and quality products for the healthy development of trees. The bacterium has caused fever illness. In many areas, pear trees have begun to dry out. Due to the great damage caused by the disease, our production has decreased. To prevent this, the use of resistant varieties and effective methods of fighting have become very important.
- Morphology and Biological Properties of Pear
Pear tree grows usually upright and take the shape of a crown pyramid. The wooden texture is very hard. The root of the pear tree that grows from seeds is a kind of taproot. Lateral and hairy root formation is seen in good and watery soil.
The branches of the pear are similar with apples and they are divided into 2 parts, fruit and wood branches. Fruit twigs are same as with the apple. However, these twigs give products earlier than apples. Pouches and knobs are more than apples. Unlike apples, they are hairless.
Pear has leaves, shoots and flower buds. Leaf buds settle in the leaves and when they bust out, the leaves appear. Flower buds have hairless and mixed structure. They have both flowers and leaves. In pear, knobs are efficient until 7-8 years old.
The edges are sawed or straightened. It has harder structure than apple and rarely partitioned.
It is a pseudo-fruit and it comes to fruition together with the ovary, the combination of the bowl and the petals, and the underside of the stamens. The fruit flesh is round and consists of cells with high water content. In some kinds of fruit there are stone cells. They give the fruit a refreshing sense of sandiness. The formation of the stone cells is related to the species as well as to the soil conditions.
- Fertilization Biology
Triploid varieties are not recommended as phlegmatic because their germination rates are low. There should be placed two diploid pollinators in the gardens which are established with triploid varieties. Some of the pear varieties are partly self-fertile. Mutual pollination is required to ensure efficiency. For example, the conference type has been reported to be efficient, but it almost does not match itself. The tetraploid varieties such as Improved Fertility and Double Williams are self-fertile and the germination rates of the pollen are high.
The inconsistency in pear is more apparent than in apple. Pollinators should be used when planting a garden.
In pears fruit formation can occur without fertilization. In this respect, especially Williams, Comice, Hard Fertilit Kieffer, Beurre d'Anjou, etc., raise attention.
- Ecological Requirements of Pear
Pear is a mild climate fruit. It is less resistant than apple in cold conditions. For this reason, it can reach up to 55 latitudes in the northern hemisphere. The resistance to winter frosts depends on the type. Generally, it can withstand -25, -30⁰C. However, the long duration of frost and the presence of trees on moist soil increase damage. Pear flowers open earlier than apples’ and are more likely to be affected by spring frosts. Winter cooling request is lower than apple; 1200-1500 hours of cooling is enough. It is not appropriate to grow pears in the summer where it is cool and rainy.
Pear trees are sensitive to wind damage. Strong winds affect both growth of the trees and the fruits in a negative way. It is necessary to make windbreaks in cold regions.
Pear is a type of fruit that can adapt to very different soil conditions. It is less resistant to dry soil but it is more tolerant to poorly drained and heavy soils. However, pear grafted on quince suffers damage by iron deficiency due to the high lime and alkaline rate. Weak lands should be improved through farm manure.
- Lay out of Pear Garden
In the gardens established with grafted seedlings, planting can be done in autumn and early spring. In mild climate regions, it is better to do planting in autumn. The dibbling interval varies according to the rootstock and ecological conditions. Generally, intervals are enlarged in arid conditions. 3-4 m is enough when quince rootstock is used in damp areas. Also, 4-6 m for medium sized trees and 6-8 m for pear trees dibbling intervals can be used.
4.1. Cultural and Technical Processes Implemented on Pear Garden
In pears, peak branches, different peak branches, goble, palmette and pyramid, as well as Spindle Bush cultivation forms can be used.
There are some situations that need to be considered during the shaping of trees in youth, which are as follows;
- It is desirable that the seedlings that will be planted in the garden are well branched. Because a good branching speeds up the production of a fruit.
- Where fire blight is common, the number of main branches that form the roof must be increased to six. Because in the following years some of the main branches can be removed due to infection. Under normal conditions, the number of main branches should be 3-4.
- Mild pruning should be preferred in rainy areas where fire blight is present, because severe pruning stimulates the formation of fresh shoots, which makes it difficult to control the disease.
- Many types of pears tend to grow vertically, they do not branch out too much. Peak hitting must be minimized to warn the formation of side branches.
- It is important that a branch is loaded with excess fruit in young age. Because this load may deteriorate the branch through draw down.
Pear is very tolerant of drought. Its efficiency and quality can be improved by paying attention to watering. The excess water at the beginning of the growing season helps the new shoots develop, while the later water prevents the reduction of fruit size. Yield and quality can be positively affected by irrigation, however, the storage quality of winter pears, which are very often irrigated, decreases. A fruit that is not watered is small and sandy.
Pear generally reacts more to nitrogen than apples. However, the most important point to consider in nitrogen fertilization is fire blight because excessive development of the shoot increases the effectiveness of this disease. Deficiencies of iron, zinc and manganese in some arid regions and magnesium deficiencies in rainy regions can be seen. These elements become more effective when applied from the leaves. Farm manure corrects the physical properties of the soil. For this reason, it is useful to give 3-4 tons of farm manure every 3 years.
Pears usually show little need for thinning. If the load is not high, there is no need to thinning. Manual thinning in pears can be done up to 50-70 days after flowering. Because during the development of the fruit in the pear, the cell division phase takes about 7-9 weeks, and after that a rapid increase in the fruit weight starts and continues. NAA and its derivatives are used for chemical thinning in pears. The state of the tree and the environmental factors are extremely important in chemical applications.
- Harvest, Sorting, Packing and Storage
In pears, the harvest is done by hand and tied together with the stem of the fruit. Care should be taken not to damage the fruits during collection and placement in containers. The harvest must start with the ripe fruits first and the harvest should be done 2-3 times. The collection of summer varieties should be done early in the morning and the collection of winter varieties should be done after the dew on the fruit. Early harvest fruiting is accompanied by crusting, wrinkling, and loss of water, while late harvesting fruits are easily caught in meat discoloration and fungal diseases. In the pear, some characteristic features are seen when the fruit becomes a tree. These are increase in fruit juice, increase in sugar and water-soluble dry matter and special aroma substances in fruit, and the decrease in fruit hardness. Along with these, changes in the ground color of the fruit crust are also important. All these features are benefited from the detection of the harvest. In addition to these, the number of days between full flowering and harvesting is an important criterion used to determine the time of the climactic minimum by determining the time of the climactic minimum by measuring the distribution of starch on fruit surface and the respiration of the fruits.
The harvested fruit must be stored in the storage room. Delay in entering the storage is very harmful and each delayed day reduces the storage life 7-10 days. For this reason, it is better to stay in the branch rather than to wait for the fruits after they have been picked. It is recommended that the storage temperature in pears is generally between -0.5 and -1 ⁰C. Ripe pears freeze at -2.8⁰C. The critical temperature for the pears is around -2,4 ° C. Relative humidity in the storage area should be between 90-95%, while in ordinary storage tanks it should be at around 70%. (Source: http://arastirma.tarim.gov.tr)
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