Peach Growing

Introduction

Although Turkey has suitable climatic conditions for the production of peaches, it cannot enter the countries of the promise even in Mediterranean countries. In 2013, the amount of peach-nectarine production in the world is 21,638,953. Our country’s production in 2013 is 637,543 tons. With this production, our country is in the 7th place in world production order in 2013.

CLIMATE AND SOIL Requirements

  1. Climate

At the beginning of the factors limiting peach cultivation; Low winter temperatures, seasonal winter cold weather, late spring frosts and low summer temperatures. Where the winter temperature falls to -18 / -20 ° C, the eyes and shoots freeze.

Because peach is an early-flowering fruit species, it is much damaged from late spring frosts. Where summer temperatures are low, the ripening of the fruits is delayed and the fruit yield falls.

  1. Soil

Peach trees prefer slightly acidic soils ranging from 6.0 soil pH to 6.5. Anything slightly under or over and the tree will still grow, but its yield and health may be adversely affected. The trees love sandy loam soil and demand good drainage. If soil drainage is poor, tilling in compost, sand or peat moss helps increase drainage capabilities.

Growing Technique

  1. Reproduction

It is not possible to produce peach varieties by seed without losing its properties. In practice, peaches are produced by budding. In the production of seedlings, more stagnant eye drops are used.

  1. Gardening Facility

Peach gardens are generally planted with 1 year old seedlings. Planting is preferably done in the autumn. However, it is recommended to plant spring in cold winter.

The best-sized seedlings at the depth of the planting are deeper than the depth at the nursery. In practice, the depth of the vaccine site remains the same as on the soil surface.

When the roots of the saplings are dismantled, the injured, unbroken and injured parts should be cut over the wound.

At the garden facility, a deep soil process is essential as it is in the other fruits. The distance between the trees in the garden should be 5 x 5 m or 5 x 4 m depending on the soil conditions.

ANNUAL MAINTENANCE

  1. Soil

There are four plow in a year. Because it is cheap, grass mowing can be applied instead of soil treatment.

  1. Irrigation

Water peaches regularly–at least weekly–during the first year in the ground. Established trees require less regular watering. Peaches will produce where watering is infrequent.

  1. Fertilization

The application of fertilizer amount is determined by leaf and soil analysis.

When peach gardens are dry, a basic fertilization is done. The amount of organic matter in the soil should be increased by giving green fertilizer every year.

It would be useful to give 100 gr for each tree per tree per year from artificial fertilizers (e.g., 500 gr in age 5).

Phosphorous fertilizers should be given in the form of a band in an ark which will be opened from the bottom of the tree at a distance of 1-1.5 m from the stem in autumn, nitrogen fertilizers should be given as 1/2 at the beginning of March and 1/2 at the beginning of May.

  1. Pruning

Two types of pruning are applied in peach trees. Newly planted seedlings are trimmed in shape. Peach trees are gobbled or branched in various peaks. In arid regions, the peak is also branched, which is also suitable for the closed zone. Annual pruning is important to keep the tree from becoming unwieldy. Pruning will enhance productivity and ensure a quality crop. Un-pruned trees will produce small crops and small fruit. A peach tree can be lightly pruned at any time of the year; heavy pruning should be done in late fall after the tree has dropped its leaves and gone dormant or in early spring before new buds appear. Peach trees are commonly pruned to an open center–vase shaped–which allows air and light into the center of the crown. Where fruit sunburn may be a problem train a peach tree to a central leader.

  1. Thinning

Peach trees are thinning in two ways, manually and chemically. Thinning of some chemical substances with peach trees has not been successful. Manual dilution is costly but more confident. The fruit is thinning to 8-12 cm in the small fruit varieties, 12-15 cm in the medium fruit varieties and 15-20 cm in the large fruit varieties.

HARVEST

Peaches are ripe when the ground color of the fruit changes from green to completely yellow. Some of the newer peach varieties have a red tinge to the skin, but this is not a reliable barometer of ripeness. Overripe fruit reduces storage time and increases the possibility of disease, insect and bird damage. In addition, peaches will ripen in color, juiciness and texture off the tree, but will lack in flavor and sweetness. The best indicator of the correct time for picking peach fruit is a taste test. Although lesser in flavor, slightly under ripe fruit can be harvested and ripened indoors in a paper bag if there is an immediate need to harvest due to weather. Fruits that will be sent to remote markets or kept in cold weather storage are harvested 24-48 hours before full maturity. None of the fruits in the tree is ripe at the same time; it depends on the weather conditions. Collected fruits should not be poured into packaging containers from above. Peach fruits can be stored in cold storage at 85-90% relative humidity at 0 ° C for 2-4 weeks.

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