Chestnut can withstand temperatures down to -30 ° C in winter. However, it is sensitive to late frost of spring and early frost of autumn. Chestnut is not affected by high temperatures in summer, but is affected by drought. While winter chilling needs of chestnuts are moderate, exact figures have not been determined.
Chestnut can be grown in places with an annual precipitation of 600-1200 mm. For this reason, rainfall is important for raising chestnuts.
Well-drained, acidic soil type. This is the most important consideration when planting chestnuts. Choose wisely; sandy, loamy, well drained and somewhat acidic soil (pH 4.5-6.5) on gently sloping fertile land is best. Avoid heavy clay soils.
Chestnut Reproduction and Rootstocks
The most applied and most reliable method is production through budding. In budding, June shoot eye ointment should be preferred. Chestnut seeds show a germination of 90% in the result of a fold of 0-4⁰C for 3 months. Seeds must be disinfecting with fungicides.
Some points should be taken into account when choosing a garden site. These are the site and the soil. Site preparation will depend on the condition of the field. If the site is uncultivated, trees and brush should be removed, the field mowed, and regrowth controlled. Within planting rows, spray herbicide 2 weeks prior to planting, or otherwise remove sod and competing vegetation. Old fields can often be easier to maintain, but they often have hardier weeds that take persistence in management. While planting gardens are planting new gardens, 7 m x 7 m, 8 m x 8 m planting distances should be preferred.
The most preferred system is Modified Leader (Peak Branches). When the peak branches reach a certain height, the peak can be pruned for controlling growth.
Pruning of Trees in Yield
Pruning should be done in branch thinning as required. Annual shoots are not pruned because the buds occur on the margin of annual shoots.
Pruning of Aged Trees
The main branches are pruned to ensure new shoot. Thus, it is possible to increase productivity by rejuvenation.
There are many benefits of mulching which include the protection of soil nourishment and weed control. Straw and these kind of materials can be used as a mulching tools. The first 4-5 years should be mulched to 3-4 cm thick.
Diseases and Harms
The most important diseases of chestnut are Chestnut Bark and Ink Disease.
Chestnut Bark Disease: The disease's spores are carried by wind, insects and birds, infecting the disease by entering the wounds opened in the trees. Another symptom is longitudinal cracks on diseased branches. The dried and cracked places are over reddish brown.
The diseased seedlings and vaccine pills should not be transported to healthy places.
The wounds should not be opened in the trees and the wound areas should be covered immediately with the vaccine paste.
The diseased branches and shoots should be cut and burned.
Gardens should be constructed with disease tolerant varieties.
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