The Cherry’s motherland is the Caspian Sea, the South Caucasus and North Anatolia; the sour cherry’s is the North Anatolian Mountains extending between Istanbul and the Caspian Sea. The English word cherry, French cerise, Spanish cereza, and Turkish kiraz all derive from the Latin cerasum, which referred to an ancient Greek region which today is the city of Giresun, Turkey from which cherries were first thought to be exported to Europe. The spread of cherries and cherries to Europe has been caused by the transport of their seeds by birds and animals.
Cherry and sour cherries are especially rich in terms of mineral matter. Almost all of the cherries produced are consumed fresh, except for a few varieties used in the industry. Sour cherry is very suitable to be processed as fruit juice because of fruit juice yield (70-75%) and total acidity (3%). Furthermore, the sourced cherries are evaluated as deep-freezing, drying, canning and jam, and are exported to foreign countries especially frozen.
There have been rapid increases in the production of cherries and cherries in Turkey, especially between 1965 and 1985. Cherry production, which was 47,000 tons in 1965, reached 130,000 tons in 1985, an increase of 76%. Today, according to official figures, our production amount in 2013 is 494,325 tons. The cherry production in 2013 is 179,752.
- Ecological Requirements
The most important climate factor in cherry cultivation is temperature. If the flower buds can stand up to -2.4 ° C, the open flowers freeze at -2 ° C. The woody parts of the cherry can withstand temperatures up to -40 ° C. Sour cherries are last longer than cherries at low temperatures. Sour cherry blossoms are less likely to suffer damage from late spring frosts because they are flowering late than cherries in the spring.
For cherries, the winter recreation desires are more important than the sour cherries, and they need to take enough winter chill. Delays and irregularities are seen in the flowering of cherries that are not met with the need for cooling. As for the sour cherries, there is no problem in this regard as it is self-efficacious. Generally, cooling time of cherries and sour cherries is less than + 7.2 ° C for 1100-1700 hours.
Soils that are well-trained, deep, can be flown and can be irrigated regularly in the summer months are the most suitable soil for cherries. In poor soil that does not have good drainage, the tree is weakly developed and rare fruit boughs come to the fore. In dry soil again the fruit remains small. Where the ground water is high, the roots remain flat and the growth of the tree becomes slow. In such cases, the risk of drought is increased.
Sour cherry trees tolerate a variety of soil types, but produce best in rich, well-drained soil.
- Reproduction of Cherry and Sour Cherry
The most suitable replication method is propagation through budding. In the nursery garden, firstly, you should start with wild cherry seedling. The start time of the stagnant eye can be adjusted according to the state of the rootstock.
- Fertilization Biology
Fertilization is the most important issue that cherry growers need to consider when they will be gardening. It has been determined that all the cherries on which they work are incompatible with them except for a few varieties (stella) brought to the square by artificial mutation.
The cherry blossoms are incompatible because, although the pollen can be germinated very well, the varieties themselves cannot be fertilized or fruits cannot be obtained when they are pollinated with each other.
In order to get adequate yield in cherry garden;
The garden should not be built in one kind.
It must be ensured that the varieties to be treated can fertilize each other.
There must be enough bees in the garden to provide pollination.
- Cultural and Technical Procedures Applied at the Cherry and the Sour Cherry Gardens
5.1. Garden Facility
When setting up a closed cherry and sour cherry garden, it is especially necessary to make a good planting plan. Because there is no fertilization problem in the sour cherries, the garden can be constructed with only one variety. However, the second variety increases the yield more. Because the cherries are self-inflicted, the main varieties should never be more than two rows away from the fertilizer. Considering this principle, for the purposes of harvesting and marketing; in the high-margin landscaping, at least 4-5 varieties, or even the best 7-8 varieties should be planted.
Soil condition, rootstock, irrigation and fertilization are important for deciding planting distance. 5.2. Irrigation
Where the annual rainfall is 600 mm or more, there is no need to watering the cherry. If it is over 400 mm, there is no need to watering the sour cherry. However, irrigating 2-3 times per year in places below these rainfalls will be beneficial for vegetative and generative development.
Especially in the cherry and sour cherry garden, 2-3 tons of burned farm grape is given especially in the first establishment period and it is useful for the development of trees which are replicated every 2 years. In the first years following planting, that is, giving very strong fertilizer during the formation of trees is inconvenient. Because of strong vegetative development and fruit formation delayed. However, in the case of fertile trees, the situation is different and inorganic fertilizers should be given to them every year in the direction of soil and leaf analysis to be done except the above farm fertilization.
The cherry and cherry varieties show differences in the development of the crowns. While the varieties of cherries usually produce a growing crown, the varieties of sour cherry form a more flattened crown shape. For this reason, while the pyramid or modified leader system is applied to the cherries, the cherries are generally crowned in the form of modified leader (different peak) system. Widely applied is the modified system of both. The general principles in the modified leader system are the same as for apples and armuts. In cherries, however, special attention should be paid to the formation of strong roofing branches due to the vulnerability of fork branches.
- Harvest, Classification and Packaging
Cherries and sour cherries should be collected when they are mature. Wait until the cherries turn fully red to harvest them; the sugar content rises dramatically in the last few days of ripening. You'll need to go over the tree every other day for about a week. Pick the fruit with stems attached, but be careful not to tear off the woody fruit spur, which will continue to produce fruit year after year.
6.2. Classification and Packaging
Cherries are divided into three classes: extra, Class II and I. Extra class refers to the cherries are not lower than 20 mm in diameter, and they are completely similar in shape and color. Class I refers to being of good quality, at least 17 mm in shape, color and development. Lastly, Class II refers fresh, firm, spotless, and crack-free fruit.
Selected cherries are served to the market through baskets of 5-10 kgs or tablets of 30 x 50 cm. Packaging containers should be light, clean and new.
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